Speechs in the year
Tarikh/Date	:	13/01/2003
Versi 		:	ENGLISH
Penyampai	:  	PM 

       The  wars to end wars have been fought twice in the
   20th  Century  and have been won by the forces  claiming
   to  love peace.  But we have never really been free from
   wars.   Maybe not on the scale of the 1st and 2nd  World
   War  but  for  many countries and people the  wars  they
   have  to experience, the wars of liberation and the wars
   to  protect  their  freedom are  no  less  fearsome  and
   damaging.   Thousands have died in Eastern  Europe,  the
   Middle East; in Central and South America, in East  Asia
   and  South Asia, and in Africa.  For many peace is still
   an elusive goal.
   2.    The  League of Nations had failed and  the  United
   Nations has not performed much better.  The strong  will
   dominate and the weak must submit.  It is still a  world
   of might is right.
   3.    The  former  colonies of the  Europeans  may  have
   gained  independence in the legal sense.  But  many  are
   not  truly  independent.  Politically  and  economically
   they  remain no better than colonies.  For a time  their
   borders are respected.  But then came new ideas about  a
   globalised world, a world without borders.   How  can  a
   country  be  independent if its borders are not  sacred,
   if  anyone can cross its borders freely and do  anything
   he likes within the country?
   4.    Of course globalisation is about free trade,  open
   borders  and free access.  Countries should not  protect
   their  own  banks  and companies through  discriminatory
   laws.   Foreign  companies should be  accorded  national
   status  i.e.  there  should  be  no  difference  in  the
   treatment   of   local  businesses   and   foreign-owned
   businesses.   This  it  is  claimed  will  benefit   the
   developing  countries  and the  consumers.   They  would
   have  access  to the best services and products  at  the
   lowest price.
   5.    But if the big foreign corporations operate freely
   in  a  country,  would  they  not  kill  all  the  local
   companies?  Would they not become so powerful that  they
   would  wield  a disproportionately strong  influence  on
   local  society  and  local  politics?   Would  they  not
   dominate the Governments, as was the case with  the  so-
   called Banana Republics?
   6.    Historically the East India Companies  set  up  by
   European countries in order to trade with Asia ended  up
   with  colonising the countries with which  they  traded.
   Thus  India,  Burma and Malaysia were made  colonies  of
   the  British  Empire while the Malay Archipelago  became
   the Dutch East Indies.
   7.    History has a way of repeating itself.  The  giant
   corporations and banks which belong to the rich  western
   countries  can behave like the East India  Companies  of
   the  past.  From merely demanding for unfettered  trade,
   they  can  go on to dominate and control the Governments
   of  the countries which had been opened to them. The end
   result  will not be much different from the colonisation
   which  had  followed  trading by  the  European  Trading
   Companies   of   the  past.   Then  the   struggle   for
   independence  can begin all over again and  there  could
   be   violence  and  even  a  new  series  of   wars   of
   8.    Perhaps this is too pessimistic a picture  of  the
   future.  But nothing that is happening today or  in  the
   aftermath  of  the two World wars is reassuring.   While
   Europe  has  experienced a period of peace unprecedented
   in  its history; while Europe has consolidated into  the
   European  Union;  while North America has  continued  to
   prosper,  and  to  unite  into  one  solid  block,   the
   developing  countries  continue to  be  developing.   In
   East  Asia  a few have managed to progress but  suddenly
   attacks  on  their  currencies have  pushed  back  their
   economies by almost two decades.
   9.     Practically  all  the  developing  countries  are
   indebted  to the rich, either directly or through  their
   agencies.   They  have  to place  themselves  under  the
   direction of the powerful countries.  Although they  try
   to  conform  to the norms determined by the  rich,  they
   find  themselves  quite  unable to  repay  their  debts.
   This  means  that their economies must be  subjected  to
   the  directions of their creditor countries.  In  effect
   they  have become debt slaves, having lost their  rights
   to  take charge of the administration and management  of
   their economies.
   10.   The unfortunate thing is that the advice they  are
   getting  from the creditor countries and their  agencies
   would  keep them poor, unable to recover and  unable  to
   pay  back  their  debts.  It may not be intentional  but
   few  countries which had accepted the advice  have  been
   able to recover.
   11.   It must be remembered that the developed countries
   were  once  as  poor and as backward as  the  developing
   countries  of today.  They had become developed  by  not
   doing  what  they are advising the developing  countries
   to  do  now  i.e. by not being liberal, not  opening  up
   their borders; by protecting their young industries  and
   by   rigid   regulations  and  laws  devised  by   their
   Governments.    The  assertion  that   from   the   very
   beginning  they  had  practised  free  trade  and   open
   competition  is not borne out by the facts  of  history.
   We  know  that  their East India Companies  thrived  and
   prospered  through  monopolies,  through  divisions   in
   their  spheres of trading activities, through militarily
   defended   trading   stations  and  eventually   through
   colonising the countries with which they were trading.
   12.   As  for  democracy, human rights,  labour  rights,
   justice   and  fairplay,  their  colonies  and   trading
   partners  experienced nothing of these.   There  was  no
   way  the colonies or the trading partners could get fair
   trading,  i.e.  fair and competitive  prices  for  their
   13.    The   British   had  a  policy  called   Imperial
   Preference through which they and their products  gained
   privileged  access to land for estates, and markets  for
   their goods within the British Empire.  The Dutch had  a
   system  of  forcing farmers to produce  and  sell  their
   agricultural   products  to  Dutch  monopolies.    Other
   countries  used slaves or indentured labour to  work  on
   their estates.
   14.   Had  there been a free press, freedom  of  speech,
   democratic  elections  and  human  rights,  it  is  most
   unlikely  that  the exploitation of the  wealth  of  the
   colonial countries and trading partners could have  gone
   on  for  a  sufficient length of time for  the  colonial
   powers to prosper.
   15.   The  point that has to be made is that it  is  not
   democracy, free trade and good governance that made  the
   developed  countries what they are today.   Yet  we  are
   being  told that the way to develop developing countries
   is  to embrace globalisation and a borderless world,  to
   deregulate,  to  do  away  with  protectionism,  to   be
   democratic  and to be liberal.  From what we  have  seen
   and  experienced,  the mere floating of  our  currencies
   can  already  lead  to financial and economic  disaster.
   Many   countries   are  practically  without   effective
   government because of the democratic processes.  How  do
   our  puny  banks  and corporations compete  against  the
   super  giants  which have been formed in order  to  take
   advantage of a borderless world?
   16.   Today  in addition to the economic woes  resulting
   from  attempts to standardise practices in a  globalised
   world,  we  are all also assailed by fears of  terrorist
   17.   Terrorism  has always been with us.   In  the  two
   world  wars millions of non-combatants died and millions
   more  maimed  for life.  One cannot say  they  were  not
   terrified by the wars.  Since then many people  in  many
   places have suffered from terror attacks.  But they  are
   not  of  the  rich  and  the  strong.   They  are  quite
   ordinary  citizens of rather inconsequential  countries.
   200,000  Bosnians  died from Serbian  ethnic  cleansing.
   Palestinians  and  Israelis  died  also.   So   do   the
   Chechens,  the  Kasmiries, the Rwandans, the  Watutsies,
   the  Chileans and the Argentines.  But the world was not
   moved  to  wage a world war on terrorists because  these
   unimportant people have been terrorised.
   18.   Then on 11 September the World Trade Center in New
   York,  the  business  capital of the  richest  and  most
   powerful   nation  of  the  world  was  attacked.    And
   everyone  realised  that  no one  is  safe.   The  world
   united to fight against global terrorism.
   19.   Unfortunately the world has never  handled  global
   terrorism   of  this  kind.   We  think  in   terms   of
   conventional  warfare.  We think if we can  defeat  them
   militarily they would surrender and sue for peace.
   20.    And  so  billions  and  billions  are  spent   on
   upgrading defence and security.  The only result  is  to
   harass  ourselves and make us all live in constant  fear
   of  being  the next victim of terror attacks.   We  fear
   flying,  we  fear travelling, we fear certain countries,
   we  fear  certain religions, we fear certain people,  we
   fear  the shoes they wear, we fear cargo ships, imported
   goods,   letters  and  parcels   --  in  fact  we   fear
   everything around us.  And because of these fears we  no
   longer  invest,  in  our  own countries  or  in  foreign
   countries.  And the economy of the world, the  economies
   of every country regress and fails.
   21.   Actually  the  perpetrators of  the  11  September
   attacks and the Al Qaeda cannot possibly expect  such  a
   result from their attacks.  They have really shaken  the
   whole world and it looks like we are going to feel  this
   fear and the consequences for very long time.
   22.   The success of the 11 September attack is due much
   more  to  our wrong handling of the situation  than  the
   extent  of  the actual damage done.  The billions  being
   lost   by   the  whole  world  today  through   economic
   recession,  the  billions being spent  on  security  and
   defence  can  build  hundreds  of  World  Trade   Centre
   23.   The  Israelis should know by now that defence  and
   security   measures   and   even   out-terrorising   the
   terrorists  have not stopped the suicide  bombers.   The
   world is far less thorough in defence and security  than
   the  Israelis.  It stands to reason that the world fight
   against  terror through upgrading defence  and  security
   is going to be far less successful than the Israelis.
   24.   We may not want to admit it but the terrorists are
   not  terrorising for the fun of it.  They have a reason.
   We  may  think  that their reason does not  warrant  the
   kind  of  actions  they are taking.  But  that  kind  of
   thinking  on  our part is not going to get us  anywhere.
   We  have  to look into what motivates them.  If we  care
   to  look  and  acknowledge the causes leading  to  their
   acts of terror and we try to remove them then we may  be
   able to at least reduce such acts.
   25.   There are many causes and because we will  not  be
   able  to  attend to all of them we cannot stop terrorism
   completely.   But  I  would  like  to  insist  that  the
   principle  reason is territorial and not religious.  The
   Palestinians  have had their land taken away  from  them
   and  they  have been expelled from their land  and  made
   refugees.   Every  time they try to regain  their  land,
   they lost more.  Their struggle has been ignored by  the
   world.  Even the killings of their people, children  and
   non-combatants  included  raised  hardly   an   eyebrow.
   Unable  to  wage conventional war they have resorted  to
   acts of terror.
   26.   Although friendly Muslim countries are  unable  to
   help the Palestinians, the people of these countries  do
   not  feel  that they should be bound by the policies  of
   their  Government.   And so we find Muslims  from  other
   countries taking part in these acts of terror.
   27.   From among the more than one billion Muslims there
   must  be several thousands who would be willing to  lose
   their  lives  in  what they believe is  a  struggle  for
   justice.  We have to acknowledge this fact if we are  to
   succeed in stopping global terrorism.
   28.   But  unfortunately the world is merely aggravating
   the  situation.   Not only are we not trying  to  remove
   the  causes,  we are actually creating new ones.   There
   was  a time when Muslim countries were in agreement over
   the  need  to  stop  Iraqi aggressiveness.   Today  that
   unity  of  purpose  has disappeared.   Muslims  see  the
   stance   taken   against  Iraq   as   another   act   of
   discrimination against Muslims.
   29.   If  Iraq  is  attacked  not  only  will  it  be  a
   distraction in the fight against world terrorism but  it
   is  likely  to  increase the number of recruits  to  the
   ranks of the terrorists.
   30.   Iraq,  Iran and North Korea have been  labeled  as
   the  Axis  of  Evil.  But despite the  fact  that  North
   Korea has admitted that it has nuclear capability it  is
   not being threatened with war as Iraq is.
   31.   We do not want to see North Korea being threatened
   with  war and the country being militarily attacked  but
   the  accommodating attitude towards North Korea is going
   to  anger the Muslims more.  Yet when North Korea agreed
   to  cooperate and end its nuclear program,  it  had  not
   been  appreciated.   There  was  no  relaxation  of  the
   condemnation of North Korea nor had food and  other  aid
   been  given.  Justified or not North Korea feels it  had
   been  let  down.   Hence  the  more  uncooperative   and
   belligerent attitude that it had adopted recently.
   32.   North Korea has never been an easy country to deal
   with.  But whether it joins the world community or  not,
   it  is  still a part of our global village.  We have  to
   learn  how  to  befriend  it and  get  its  cooperation.
   Cutting off supplies of food and other necessities  will
   not  bring it to its knees.  Perhaps we can nuclear bomb
   it  out of existence.  But that would be a confession of
   our failure.
   33.   Looking at Iraq, North Korea, Palestine  and  many
   other hot spots, I cannot help feeling that despite  all
   our   technological   progress,  our   claim   to   have
   established  a  modern,  more humane  and  sophisticated
   civilisation; I cannot help feeling that we have  failed
   to  learn  how  to cope, how to manage  the  world.   We
   still  think  in terms of the capacity to  kill  as  the
   determinant of our strength.  We still think that  might
   is  right,  that the strong must dominate and  the  weak
   must submit.
   34.   Frankly  I  do not think we have  progressed  much
   from  the Stone Age.  They used clubs and we use nuclear
   weapons, but the promise is still the same.
   35.   It  is  time that we pause and rethink.   Labeling
   people as Satan or Axis of Evil merely provoke but  does
   not  resolve anything.  Oppressing people or  destroying
   their  countries  will not solve  problems  either.   We
   have  to  get away from our old culture and  values  and
   reinvent  our civilisation.  The globalised world  needs
   a  change in our perception of things and in our way  of
   dealing with the problems that must arise with change.
   36.    We   cannot   live   in   isolation   any   more.
   Globalisation  is not about trade and investments  only.
   Globalisation  must affect everything that  we  do.   We
   must  also  accept that nothing happens in one  part  of
   the  world  without affecting the rest.  The  attack  on
   the  World  Trade  Centre on 11th September  is  not  an
   attack on the U.S. alone.  It is an attack on the  whole
   world.    By   the  same  token  the  dispossession   of
   Palestinian  land  is not an exclusive  problem  of  the
   Palestinians.   The  terrorism that  assails  the  world
   today  has  a  direct connection with the  fate  of  the
   Palestinians.  Terror has become as globalised as  trade
   and  investments.   The  law and policy  makers  of  the
   world  cannot  limit their interest to  their  countries
   alone.   They have to be interested in the whole  world.
   That  is why it is useful for them to come together  and
   discuss  their national problem as international issues,
   as problems which affect the whole world.
   37.   I  would  like  to  express my  gratitude  to  the
   President  of APPF, Mr Yasuhiro Nakasone and Members  of
   the  Presiding Committee for this opportunity to air  my
   views.   I wish the conference a successful and fruitful

   Sumber : Pejabat Perdana Menteri